Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666Plurinational State of Bolivia Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (Spanish) Bulivya Mamallaqta (Quechua) Wuliwya Suyu (Aymara) Tetã Volívia (Guaraní) Flag Coat of arms Motto: "¡La unión es la fuerza!" (Spanish) "Unity is Strength!" Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia (Spanish) (also known as Bolivianos: el hado) Wiphala of Qollasuyu Capital La Paz (governmental) Sucre (constitutional)a Largest city Santa Cruz de la Sierra 17°48′S 63°10′W / 17.800°S 63.167°W / -17.800; -63.167 Official languages Spanish Quechua Aymara Guaraní and 34 other native languages Ethnic groups (2010) 55% Amerindianb 30% Mestizo 15% White Demonym Bolivian Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic - President Evo Morales - Vice President Álvaro García Linera Legislature Plurinational Legislative Assembly - Upper house Senate - Lower house Chamber of Deputies Independence from Spain - Declared 6 August 1825 - Recognized 21 July 1847 - Current constitution 7 February 2009 Area - Total 1,098,581 km2 (28th) 424,163 sq mi - Water (%) 1.29 Population - 2012 estimate 10,389,913 (83rd) - Density 9/km2 (221st) 23/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate - Total $55.229 billion - Per capita $5,099 GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate - Total $27.429 billion - Per capita $2,532 Gini (2010) 53 high HDI (2013) 0.675 medium · 108th Currency Boliviano (BOB) Time zone BOT (UTC−4) Drives on the right Calling code +591 ISO 3166 code BO Internet TLD .bo a. See below. b. Quechua, Aymara and 34 other ethnic groups.
Bolivia (i/bəˈlɪviə/, Spanish: ), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia locally: , Quechua: Bulivya Mamallaqta, Aymara: Wuliwya Suyu), is a landlocked country located in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest, and Peru to the west.
Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire – the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The conquistadors took control of the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was known as Upper Peru and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies, although the area enjoyed substantial autonomy under the jurisdiction of the Royal Court of Charcas. After its first call for freedom in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Bolivia has struggled through periods of political instability and economic woes.
Bolivia is a democratic republic that is divided into nine departments. Its geography is varied from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a Medium Human Development Index score, and a poverty level of 53%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin. Bolivia has gained global attention for its 'Law of the Rights of Mother Earth', one of the unique laws in the world that accord nature the same rights as humans.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages are also common and all four, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The large number of different cultures within Bolivia has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.